|Central American University - UCA
Number 107 | Junio 1990
In this issue, envío has compiled and unofficially translated the texts of the last four accords signed by the contras: the May 30 Accord just signed, the May 4 Accord, the April 18 Accord, and the March 23 Accord (Toncontín).
Protocol of Managua on Disarmament May 30,1990 In the spirit of the Declaration of Managua signed on May 4 of this year, the Resistance, the Nicaraguan government and His Eminence, the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo, in this document agree:
1. To facilitate the implementation of what has been discussed concerning the "commitment to guarantee the moral and physical integrity of each and every one of the combatants of the Nicaraguan Resistance, their families and the civilian population that accompanies them,” in the following manner:
a. Immediate transfer of the seriously ill to receive necessary medical care in the country’s hospitals.
b. Immediate transfer of those injured and disabled in the war to he treated by specialists in Managua.
c. Creation of a commission made up of the national government, the Nicaraguan Resistance, CIAV-UN and His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo, to travel to Honduras and Costa Rica, with the goal of carrying out an exhaustive investigation of the living conditions of relatives of the Resistance, and applying emergency measures to resolve the problems encountered.
d. The Resistance is urged to immediately present a list of widows and orphans, so that INSSBI [Health and Human Welfare Institute] can include them in its budget and they can receive the monthly pensions to which they are entitled.
2. The development zone, known as El Almendro, described in the addendum to this document, is established by common accord of the undersigned, based on the proposal presented by the government. As of this date, a series of actions will be initiated that are necessary for its implementation and for settling the demobilized members in the zones.
3. The Nicaraguan government promises to offer minimum economic assistance to each demobilized combatant.
4. A police force for internal order will be immediately formed with the participation of former Resistance combatants. Its fundamental goal is to guarantee the life and physical safety of the citizens who live in the zones.
In addition, it is proposed that these police will eventually he incorporated into the framework of the Ministry of Governance. The UN or a friendly country will be asked to offer technical assistance for the professional training of the police force.
5. In order to create adequate security in the demilitarized zones, it is considered necessary:
a. To request the expansion of the mandate of the ONUCA security forces.
b. For the government to supplement assistance to the demobilized members who leave the security zones.
c. To demilitarize the conflict zone.
d. To continue collecting arms from civilians in conflict zones.
6. To guarantee the security of the ex-combatants who demobilize and leave the security zones and who live in the [development] zones. At the same time, the option remains open for those who wish to return to their place of origin to do so. It is understood that those who return to their homes accept the risks like any other citizen.
7. The government promises to name a representative of the demobilized, recommended by the Resistance, to each ministry that deals with ex-combatants and their families: Health, Agrarian Reform, Labor and others, as well as two members to the Governing Council of the Nicaraguan Repatriation Institute.
8. The Nicaraguan government promises to allow participation in the local government within the [development] zone to the ex-combatants who have settled there. Those ex-combatants who return to their homes will receive the necessary support from the state for their integration into civilian life.
9. The Declaration of Managua is ratified in each and every one of its points, with particular emphasis on the reference to the fact that the Resistance can form a political party, which will allow it to fully integrate into the political life of the country.
10. In fulfillment of the Toncontín Accord and its Addendum, the Resistance ratifies its commitment to demobilize and disarm by June 10, 1990 at the latest.
In order to do so, the Resistance promises to demobilize a minimum of 100 combatants per day and per zone beginning today. In honor of Mothers Day, a large number of combatants will be demobilized.
Signed by President Violeta Chamorro, Israel Galeano (Franklin), and Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo in the city of Managua, on May 30, 1990.
Addendum to May 30 Accord The term “development zones” is understood to mean a production unit designed to benefit members of the community and of the country, acting as a center for services and development for the surrounding region, through individual and/or collective projects, and which should include the following basic elements: Municipal Area: schools, warehouses, drinkable water and electricity, hospitals, roads; area for housing for the inhabitants of the zone or development center; private land parcels for subsistence farming and ranching; a Community Area and Projects Area for the benefit of all members of the community.
The members of the Nicaraguan Resistance who demobilize and their families will have the right to benefit from programs implemented in the development zones for that purpose.
In accordance with the government program and prevailing laws, priority will be given to demobilized members and their families in the return of or indemnization for their properties, real estate and personal property, that have been confiscated, placed under government control or de facto taken over.
To this end and to initiate the process of settling the demobilized, one or more development zones will be created in the geographic area comprised by the following points: 1) San Ubaldo, 2) Acoyapa, 3) Santo Tomás, 4) Villa Sandino, 5) Muhan, 6) La Gateada, 7) Muelle de los Bueyes, 8) Ciudad Rama, 9) Rio Rama, 10) Rio Kukra, 11) Miramar, 12) Monkey Point, 13) Punta Gorda, 14) Barra de San Juan, 15) Rio San Juan, 16) Mojon No-2, 17) Mojon No.12, 18) Mojon No. 13, 19) Mojon No. 14,20) San Carlos, 21) San Miguelito, 22) Morrito, 23) San Ubaldo, with the exception of the Southeast forest reserve and the SI-A-PAZ project. In addition, development zones may be established in the geographic area between Rio Blanco, San Pedro del Norte, Siuna and Waslala in the northern region of the country.
A tripartite commission will be created composed of INRA [Agrarian Reform Institute], IRENA [Natural Resources Institute] and the Nicaraguan Resistance, coordinated by the Repatriation Institute, to specify the location of the zones more precisely. It will also implement the development plans to facilitate the reincorporation of the demobilized combatants into civilian life.
Once legally organized and settled in the different development zones, the community members will have the right to urban and rural property titles and access to the forests, bodies of water and other existing resources, in accordance with prevailing Nicaraguan laws and regulations.
Members of the Nicaraguan Resistance and their families will be able to settle as well in other geographic areas of the country, defined by the government, with other development plans, enjoying similar benefits where possible.
Signed by Dr. Roberto Ferrey (Repatriation Institute) and Dr. Gustavo Tablada (INRA), for the Nicaraguan government, and Oscar Sobalvarro) (Rubén), Miguel Angel Soza (Emiliano), Aquilino Ruiz (Minita) and Adolfo Somoza Reyes (Mano de Piedra), for the Nicaraguan Resistance, in the city of Managua, on May 30, 1990.
May 4 Accord Accord Between the UNO Government of Nicaragua and the Nicaraguan Resistance May 4, 1990.
The Resistance declares:
1. That the Resistance is complying with the cease-fire as agreed, which implies the effective separation of its forces and the concentration of troops of the Resistance in the established security zones, a process which is about to be completed.
2. That the Resistance, in carrying out the addendum to the Toncontin Accord, will continue conducting voluntary demobilization. It will initiate disarming of its troops at 11:00 a.m. of the eighth day of the current month, within all the security zones as agreed and in the presence of the ONUCA military mission and His Eminence Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo. This process will be completed by the tenth day of June of the current year. For her part, Her Excellency Violeta Barrios de Chamorro in her capacity as President and Minister of Defense of the Republic of Nicaragua declares:
1. That she has ordered the immediate withdrawal of all army, security and paramilitary forces from the zones agreed to in the cease-fire signed on April 18 of this year. Similarly, she has ordered the collection of all arms now in civilian hands within the above referred-to zones, as well as the immediate destruction of those arms.
2. That on June 10 the program for the reduction of the armed forces as ordered in the April 25 inaugural address will be made known. The implementation of this program will begin immediately after that date.
3. That Her Excellency President of the Republic reiterates her commitment to guarantee the physical and moral integrity of each and every one of the Resistance combatants, their families, and of the civilian population that accompanies them.
4. That once the Resistance has been disarmed the government will grant legal status to the political organization which it may establish in accordance with relevant was.
5. Similarly, development poles will be established for those who have demobilized with the purpose of meeting their material needs. These zones will be defined by May 31st. Signed by President Violeta Chamorro, Israel Galeano (Franklin) and Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo in Managua, on May 4, 1990.
April 18 Accord Effective and Definitive Cease-fire Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua and the Nicaraguan Resistance Under the Auspices of His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo April 18, 1990
1. The Government of the Republic of Nicaragua, duly represented by the Defense Minister, Army General Humberto Ortega Saavedra, and the Nicaraguan Resistance, duly represented by Oscar Sobalvarro (“Comandante Rubén”), chief negotiator, and Aquilino Ruiz Robleto (“Comandante Minita”), chief negotiator of the Wenceslao Avilés Central Front, agree to establish formally, by means of this document, an effective and definitive cease-fire effective at 12 midnight on the 19th day of April 1990, to be strictly observed by both parties.
2. Effective on the date of the effective and definitive cease-fire, the National Resistance and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua, commit themselves to halt every kind of military hostility, as well as any other operations that might lead to a reinitiation of hostilities.
3. In order to guarantee the strict compliance with the effective and definitive cease-fire, the personnel of the United Nations Observers Group for Central America (ONUCA) and His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo, will verify the effective implementation of the cease-fire, in accordance with the appended timetable.
4. In order to facilitate ONUCA’s and Cardinal Obando's verification of the effective and definitive cease-fire, Security Zones are being established in previously agreed-upon areas, according to the attached appendix.
5. ONUCA and Cardinal Obando y Bravo will adopt the necessary mechanisms for the verification of the cease-fire.
6. In the period between April 19 and 21, the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua is committed to withdraw its military, paramilitary and security forces form the “security zones” and adjacent areas within 20 kilometers of those zones, except in those settlements in each zone where according to agreement a minimal police force will remain in order to maintain order, under the vigilance of ONUCA and Cardinal Obando and in zones specifically excluded in the appended note. When the withdrawal of these forces has been completed, the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua is committed not to mobilize any of its military, paramilitary or security forces within 20 kilometers of the security zones, nor to fly over these zones with military airplanes or helicopters except in corridors established in the appended note.
7. The withdrawal of these forces from the security zones and the adjacent areas will be verified by ONUCA and Cardinal Obando, who will also control the relocation of these forces in other locations.
8. Effective on the date of this agreement, all National Resistance combatants in Nicaragua will proceed without delay to the security zones in order to go ahead with the different stages of the demobilization process.
9. The military, paramilitary and security forces of the government of Nicaragua will] not obstruct the free movement of the National Resistance combatants in transit to the security zones.
10. The National Resistance commanders are authorized to maintain communication and movement between one and another zone, with ONUCA coordination.
11. The Government of Nicaragua commits itself to respect the freedom, security and physical and moral integrity of the National Resistance members and their families.
12. The International Commission of Support and Verification (CIAV) will transport and deliver humanitarian aid to the National Resistance members and their families.
13. The general services normally offered in the security zones and environs will be maintained.
14. The Government of Nicaragua and the National Resistance will cooperate with the CIAV, ONUCA and His Eminence Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo in the fulfillment of their functions.
His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo, who sponsored this agreement, has agreed to make the solemn announcement of this bilateral cease-fire, as well as to cooperate and help at all stages of the demobilization process. the verification of the effective and definitive cease-fire of the parties, the vigilance of the designated “security zones” where the armed forces of the Resistance will be concentrated and any other task of humanitarian or social nature stemming from the mentioned activities, to the extent of his ability.
Finally, His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo declares his satisfaction with the patriotic decisions undertaken and joins the signatories in giving thanks to God for assistance in illuminating their labor.
Signed by General Humberto Ortega Saavedra, for the Nicaraguan government, Oscar Sobalvarro (Rubén) and Aquilino Ruiz Robleto, for the Nicaraguan Resistance, and Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo in the city of Managua, on April 18, 1990.
For their part, the undersigned, in name and representation of the President-elect Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, support the present agreement to an effective and definitive cease fire in all its parts and express commitment to its strict fulfillment effective this coming April 25.
Signed by Antonio Lacayo, Carlos Hurtado, Luis Sánchez, Leopoldo Navarro, Roberto Ferrey.
Addendum 1 to April 18Accord Agreement on Demilitarized Zone 1. Demilitarized zone: the area within 20 kilometers of the security zone.
2. In the demilitarized zone there will be no artillery or offensive troops of any kind, or militia, or paramilitary or security forces.
3. For purposes of verification, the zone of exclusion is understood to mean that installations and brigade commands within 20 kilometers of the demilitarized zone will remain frozen under the control of ONUCA, one or two members of the Nicaraguan Resistance, the EPS and His Eminence Cardinal Obando y Bravo.
In Zone No. 1, San Rafael and Las Cuchillas. In Zone No. 2, Waslala. In Zone No. 3, Rio Blanco. In Zone No. 4, Santo Domingo. In Zone No. 5, Nueva Guinea.
4. The police of the localities within the demilitarized zone will be disarmed.
5. The following air corridors are established: a. Managua-Ocotal-Wiwilí b. Managua-San Pedro del Norte-Puerto Cabezas c. Managua-Juigalpa-Bluefields d. Managua-San Carlos-San Juan del Norte.
6. Coordinating groups established to resolve problems of security will coordinate air and land traffic through ONUCA.
Addendum 2 to April 18Accord Addition to the Toncontín Agreement The negotiating commission of the Nicaraguan Resistance, the delegation that represents the President-elect of Nicaragua, Violeta de Chamorro, view of the signing today of the effective and definitive cease-fire agreement between the government of Nicaragua and the Nicaraguan Resistance, declares the following to the people of Nicaragua and the international community.
1. That we are profoundly satisfied that in full compliance with the Toncontín Agreement, the voluntary disarmament of the Resistance forces still in the Republic of Honduras has been carried out today and that also today the agreement on the effective and definitive cease-fire has been signed under the auspices of His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Obando y Bravo.
2. That in order for the demobilization process to be achieved in an atmosphere of security and order that will guarantee the life and normal development of peaceful work of members of the Resistance, we have agreed that the disarmament of the Resistance Forces will begin on the afternoon of April 25 and that their complete demobilization will be finalized no later than June 10, 1990.
3. That the delivery of arms in voluntary form, as was done today in the Republic of Honduras, will take place in the presence of the international organizations (ONUCA and CIAV) and His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Obando y Bravo.
For his part, His Eminence Cardinal Obando y Bravo declares his satisfaction with the patriotic decisions undertaken and joins the signatories in giving thanks to God for assistance in illuminating them in their labors.
Signed by Oscar Sobalvarro (Rubén), Antonio Lacayo and Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo in Managua, April 18, 1990.
The Toncontín Accord for the Disarmament and Demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance March 23, 1990. The negotiating commission of the Nicaraguan Resistance, recognizing that the election of authorities in Nicaragua on February 25 carried out in liberty, with honesty and efficiency permitted the victory of the triumphant Violeta Barrios de Chamorro-Godoy ticket, as the will of the Nicaraguan people to establish a democratization process.
Such an event, unprecedented in our history, enables us to emphatically declare that we have decided to begin the process of a general demobilization of our troops, beginning with the disarmament, by this April 20 at the latest, of those troops which still remain in Honduras. In order to carry this out, we request as of now the cooperation and support of international organizations such as ONUCA and CIAV, and of the person of His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo.
Military confrontations inside Nicaragua must cease simultaneously, to which end we must proceed to:
First: An effective bilateral cease-fire, to be verifiable by international organizations and His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo.
Second: The concentration of our armed forces currently in Nicaragua in previously designated Security Zones inside Nicaraguan territory, to be monitored by the above mentioned international organizations and His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo. This will guarantee that an atmosphere of security and order will be maintained for the process of demobilization and for the normal, peaceful activities of our brothers and sisters.
The delegation which represents the President-elect Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, declares:
First: That it welcomes with much pleasure the decision of the Nicaraguan Resistance to initiate the process of demobilization as of this date.
Second: That as an expression of the just recognition of the patriotic labor of the Nicaraguan Resistance, it is necessary to protect the handicapped, the orphans and the widows who are the innocent victims of the armed struggle.
To this end, this representation commits itself to ensure that after the inauguration of Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro there will be rehabilitation and readaptation programs for those affected, as well as the approval of corresponding monthly pensions.
Third: That for the implementation of all the aspects hereto agreed, a Transition Commission made up of members of the new Government and of the Nicaraguan Resistance be formed, whose names will be announced in the next few days.
Fourth: The new Government presided by Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro commits itself to intercede before the appropriate governments to obtain-for the duration of the demobilization process-humanitarian aid for members of the Nicaraguan Resistance as well as the necessary medical infrastructure to provide needed attention for the victims of the conflict.
For his part, the His Eminence the Most Reverend Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo expresses his satisfaction with the patriotic decisions that have been made, and joins the undersigned in giving thanks to God for His help in guiding al] the parties attending.
Signed by Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo, Antonio Lacayo Dr. Emilio Alvarez Montalván and Oscar Sobalvarro (Rubén) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, on March 23, 1990.