Nicaraguan Elections Bibliography as of December 1989
To help those writing or giving talks about the Nicaraguan elections, the following materials on the electoral process and related issues are available at the Central American Historical Institute, Intercultural Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (tel: 202-687-5676). You can order them from us or come in and use them (please call first).
We will also have in the office copies of the Nicaraguan electoral, media, autonomy, municipality and other laws, regulations regarding international contributions to political parties, and other official Nicaraguan government documents, as well as copies of the Central American peace accords, but these can be ordered directly from: Agendas International, (212) 986-0609.
If we can help you with specific information regarding the electoral process, please give CARl a call.
Electoral observer reportsUnited Nations, "Evolution of the Electoral Process in Nicaragua: First Report of the United Nations Observer Mission to Verify the Electoral Process in Nicaragua to the Secretary General," 17 October 1989.
United Nations, "Analysis of the Electoral Laws of Nicaragua," 15 May 1989.
Organization of American States, "Apreciación de los hechos en Masatepe," December 1989.
Organization of American States, "Report on the Observation of the Approval of the Electoral and Media Laws of Nicaragua," 12 July 1989.
Bipartisan Commission on Free and Fair Elections in Nicaragua, "A Blueprint for Free and Fair Elections in Nicaragua," May 1989.
Bipartisan Commission, "Digest of the Testimony Before the Bipartisan Commission on Free and Fair Elections in Nicaragua, " May 1989.
Hemisphere Initiatives, "Establishing the Ground Rules: A Report on the Nicaraguan Electoral Process," August 1989.
Hemisphere Initiatives, "Nicaraguan Election Update: Implementing the Ground Rules—Phase I," September 1989.
Hemisphere Initiatives, "Nicaraguan Election Update #2: Foreign Funding of the Internal Opposition," 16 October 1989.
Republic of Venezuela, Supreme Electoral Council, "Report of the Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, " Caracas, March 1989.
Freedom House, "The Nicaraguan Elections: The Challenge of Democracy," 20 April 1989.
Washington Office on Latin America, "Nicaragua Election Monitor" (monthly newsletter).
PollsUnivision, poll taken 27-31 October 1989.
"Polls and More Polls," Central American Historical Institute, study of three polls taken in October 1989, 31 October 1989.
Consultoria Interdisciplinaria en Desarrollo (CID), poll taken 12-21 October 1989.
Central American University (UCA), poll taken 2-7 October 1989.
Inter-American Research Center, analysis of "La Prensa Poll #1," conducted 27 June-6 July 1989. Inter-American's Public Opinion Series, No. 10.
Inter-American Research Center, "Undecided Voters Hold Balance in Nicaragua," comparison of INOP and Fundación Manolo Morales polls conducted in July and August 1989.
Central America Research Institute, "Indecision Continues to Dominate Nicaraguan Electorate," INOP poll carried out 27 Sept.-2 October 1989.
Inter-American Research Center, "Nicaraguan Public Opinion: Preliminary report on a random sample poll conducted in Managua by the Nicaraguan Institute of Public Opinion (INOP), June 4-5, 1988." Inter-American's Public Opinion Series, No.7.
Full text of INOP questionnaire, June 4-5, 1988.
US aid for elections/oppositionSee Hemisphere Initiatives' election update #2, above.
Witness for Peace, "Dollar per vote ratio," fact sheet on amount of US aid per voter, 22 September 1989.
Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus, "US Efforts to Promote Democracy in Nicaragua: Choices for Congress on Covert and Overt Aid," 3 August 1989.
Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus, "Updated Alert: Aid to the Nicaraguan Opposition," 17 October 1989.
"Senators Blast Voting-Aid Bill as Effort to Buy Election," Congressional Quarterly, 14 October 1989.
House debate on "Providing Assistance for Free and Fair Elections in Nicaragua," Congressional Record, 4 October 1989.
Senate debate on "Assistance for Free and Fair Elections in Nicaragua," Congressional Record, 12 October, 16 October, 17 October 1989.
National Endowment for Democracy, Annual Report 1988.
Holly Sklar, "Washington Wants to Buy Nicaragua's Elections Again / A Guide to U.S. Operatives and Nicaraguan Parties," Z Magazine, December 1989.
"Winning Friends?" analysis of NED's aid to trade unions, International Labour Report, May/June 1989.
Resource Center, "The Democracy Offensive," analysis of NED network, Resource Center Bulletin, no. 18, Fall 1989.
Political platformsUNO, FSLN
Electoral law, mechanics of elections"A comparison of Electoral Laws," summary of study by Gisela von Muhlenbrock, Hispanic Law Division, Library of Congress, May 1989.
Central American Historical Institute, "Nicaragua's Supreme Electoral Council: The Question of Balance," 24 October 1989.
Center for International Policy, "Nicaragua's Electoral Reforms: Can Washington Be Satisfied?," International Policy Report (August 1989).
Costa Rican, Salvadoran, and Honduran electoral laws (in Spanish).
Carlos Escobar Armas, study of Guatemalan electoral law (in Spanish), Cuadernos de Capel, no. 17 (1985).
Jorge Luis Madrazo Cuellar, "Estudio Comparativo de la Legislación Electoral Centroamericana y de Colombia, Mexico, Panama y Venezuela." June 1985.
Republic of Venezuela, Supreme Electoral Council, "Report of the Electoral Mission to Nicaragua," Caracas, March 1989.
Central American Historical Institute, "Setting the Rules of the Game," analysis of reformed electoral law, compared with other Central American countries, envío, June 1989.
1984 ElectionsExtensive analysis and reports on the 1984 elections. 1-page fact sheet on 1984 elections, from envío Sept. 1989.
Other issues: the war, contra aid, the economyDaniel Ortega Saavedra, "Why I Ended the Cease-fire," op-ed, The New York Times, 2 November 1989.
Central American Historical Institute, "A Chronology of Events: Background to the Nicaraguan government's decision not to renew its unilateral cease-fire," 7 November 1989.
Witness for Peace, Hotline reports on their investigations of contra attacks.
US Agency for International Development, "Status Report of the Task Force on Humanitarian Assistance in Central America," Report on Phase III, May 1-August 31, 1989; 27 September 1989.
Central American Historical Institute, "What's Wrong with the Nicaraguan Economy... And What's Being Done About It," to be released in December 1989.